Home

HealthCare Jobs, Medical Jobs, Nursing Jobs, Medical Technology Jobs
NPI Search for Physicians, Hospitals, Clinics, Nursing Homes, Therapy

Connecticut : Physician Assistants & Advanced Practice Nursing Providers : Nurse Anesthetist, Certified Registered

Organization, NamePractice AddressPractice Phone  TaxonomyNPI
Abbate, Kevin William CRNA71 Haynes St      Manchester  CT 06040-4131860-646-1222367500000X1518438530
Adriani, Melissa M 20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510-3202203-688-4242367500000X1619222908
Aguilar, Leticia 114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1215301098
Ali, Mrs. Julie Christine APRN, CRNA455 Lewis Ave      Meriden  CT 06451-2101203-694-8164367500000X1376735407
Allen, Devin CRNA80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06102-8000860-282-0833367500000X1841768439
Almeida, Caitlin CRNA1450 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4405203-789-3538367500000X1558819946
Amione, Mr. Richard J. C.R.N.A.252 Mountain Rd      Wilton  CT 06897-1528203-834-2847367500000X1487639407
Anastasio, Joseph Anthony 100 Grand St      New Britain  CT 06052860-224-5011367500000X1437649589
Anderson, Elizabeth A APRN, CRNA111 Founders Plz  #300 C/o Ipms    East Hartford  CT 06108-3212860-282-4137367500000X1093782526
Anderson, Angela 140 Grandview Ave      Waterbury  CT 06708-2505203-757-7000367500000X1568554277
Anderson, Kera CRNA80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06102-8000860-545-5000367500000X1417427238
Andrews, Jason CRNA100 Grand St      New Britain  CT 06052-2016860-224-5266367500000X1346563301
Anesthesia Associates Of New Haven204 New Haven Ave Unit 6i      Derby  CT 06418-2141914-830-3985367500000X1851625362
Anesthesia Associates Of New Haven Pc1423 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4411203-865-3852207L00000X1700939063
Anesthesia Healthcare Partners Of Connecticut, Llc2200 Whitney Avenue  Ste 380    Hamden  CT 06518-3602203-281-3636367500000X1184722373
Ankiambom, Christiana J CRNA41 Brewster Rd      Bristol  CT 06010-5141860-585-3474163W00000X1891785762
Anonsen, Ms. Karen Gail CRNA4 Armstrong Rd      Shelton  CT 06484-4721203-929-7353367500000X1376699520
Anson, Esra CRNA267 Grant St  Bridgeport Anesthesia Associates, Pc    Bridgeport  CT 06610-2805203-384-3072367500000X1295789014
Argo, Michele A CRNA20 York St  Yale New Haven Hospital Tompkins Bldg -3rd Fl    New Haven  CT 06510-3220203-785-2802367500000X1942270020
Armada, Ronan James CRNA, APRN4 Armstrong Rd      Shelton  CT 06484203-929-7353367500000X1720309560
Armstrong, Richard 2800 Main St  St Vincents Medical Center    Bridgeport  CT 06606-4201203-929-7353367500000X1417933748
Arnold, Peter V CRNA, APRN41 Brewster Rd      Bristol  CT 06010-5161860-558-7543367500000X1104065960
Asiedu, Mrs. Rosemary CRNA309 Seaside Ave  Suite201    Milford  CT 06460-4625203-799-0416367500000X1720031750
Babiarz, Jonathan Maxwell R.N.20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510203-688-4242163W00000X1346774148
Badgett, Robert 326 Washington St      Norwich  CT 06360-2740860-889-8331367500000X1760878938
Bain, Allison M CRNA5 Perryridge Rd      Greenwich  CT 06830-4608203-661-5330367500000X1770527061
Balaoing, Bienvinido Arias 20 York St  Tmp 3    New Haven  CT 06510203-688-2615367500000X1649645169
Baldieri, Jennifer L 2800 Main Street  Saint Vincents Medical Center Hospital Based    Bridgeport  CT 06606203-929-7353367500000X1811094410
Balestriere, Kaitlin CRNA1450 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4405203-789-3000367500000X1790159614
Balisciano, Mrs. Deborah CRNA84 N Main St      Branford  CT 06405-3061203-407-3555367500000X1255345211
Ballance, Whitney CRNA99 E River Dr      East Hartford  CT 06108-3288860-282-4133367500000X1205102894
Banas, Robert CRNA92 Locust Ave      Danbury  CT 06810-6011203-797-7000367500000X1992733489
Barbosa, Juliano CRNA80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06106860-545-5000367500000X1215436951
Bargielski, Ms. Brenda Jaime CRNA80 Seymour St # Jb333  Hartford Anesthesiology Associates Inc    Hartford  CT 06106-3315860-545-2117367500000X1255342382
Barnes, Mrs. Priscilla 377 Woodland Ln      Orange  CT 06477-3037203-891-9639367500000X1205812534
Barnes, Tyanna CRNA267 Grant St  Bridgeport Anesthesia Associates, Pc    Bridgeport  CT 06610-2805203-384-3072367500000X1023027513
Barone, Caroline 24 Hospital Ave      Danbury  CT 06810203-739-7000367500000X1184116790
Barry, Michael M. CRNA320 Pomfret St      Putnam  CT 06260-1836860-928-6541367500000X1154399400
Bartels, Mr. Christopher Kurt CRNA1423 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4411203-865-3852367500000X1588972061
Bassett, Ann M CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1053368217
Batacan, Harim CRNA2 Trap Falls Rd Ste 414      Shelton  CT 06484-7621(20-3) -929-7353367500000X1629597588
Baughman, Jessica CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1396012225
Bautista, Alejandro Andres CRNA1450 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4405203-789-3000163WC0200X1356819239
Beaster, April CRNA99 E River Dr      East Hartford  CT 06108-3288860-282-4133367500000X1164775474
Beatson, Elizabeth APRN, CRNA111 Founders Plz  #300 C/o Ipms    East Hartford  CT 06108-3212860-282-4137367500000X1528035052
Beliveau, Paul CRNA100 Grand St  Department Of Anesthesia    New Britain  CT 06052-2016516-945-3034367500000X1396019808
Benoit, Ms. Evangeline 950 Campbell Ave      West Haven  CT 06516-2770203-932-5711367500000X1013097591
Berardesca, Natalie GRNA2 Trap Falls Road  Suite 414    Shelton  CT 06484203-929-7353367500000X1164973145
Bernheim, Mary Jospehine CRNA12 Norfolk Rd      Litchfield  CT 06759-2537860-567-0557367500000X1689770745
Bettencourt, Mrs. Gail W CRNA326 Washington Street      Norwich  CT 06360860-889-8331367500000X1992909238
Bienkowski, Gloria 4 Armstrong Rd      Shelton  CT 06484-4721203-929-7353367500000X1215016795
Binkowski, John C Jr. 2800 Main St  St Vincents Medical Center    Bridgeport  CT 06606-4201203-929-7353367500000X1710946298
Bliska, Jennifer Jane APRN, CRNA12 Allyndale Dr      Stratford  CT 06614-5101713-412-3840163W00000X1083967400
Bogen, David CRNA267 Grant St  Bridgeport Anesthesia Associates, P.c.    Bridgeport  CT 06610-2805203-384-3072367500000X1316965551
Bolduc, Denise CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1558318394
Bonci, Joan CRNA309 Seaside Ave  Suite201    Milford  CT 06460-4625203-783-1831367500000X1750334256
Borden, Roberta M CRNA MS APRN953 Main St      Manchester  CT 06040-6014860-649-1550367500000X1255309225
Boucher, Adam Ryan-lewis CRNA24 Hospital Ave      Danbury  CT 06810-6099860-377-4177367500000X1013429158
Bourassa, Alisha 28 Crescent St      Middletown  CT 06457-3654203-915-5701367500000X1689983280
Bourassa, Joseph Jr. CRNA20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510-3220203-688-2615367500000X1568883502
Bower, Erin CRNA99 E River Dr      East Hartford  CT 06108-3288860-282-4133367500000X1265876304
Brandolini, Lorriane CRNA80 S Main St      Middletown  CT 06457-3648860-347-0720367500000X1205972023
Brayfield, Rachel Ii CRNA80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06102-8000860-545-5000367500000X1275003428
Breazeale, Nicole 20 York St Dept Of      New Haven  CT 06510203-785-2802367500000X1154787547
Brewster, Monica M APRN, CRNA326 Washington Street      Norwich  CT 06360860-889-8331367500000X1922135250
Briccetti, Grace CRNA5 Perryridge Rd      Greenwich  CT 06830-4608203-661-5330367500000X1346278892
Briden, Linda CRNA99 East River Dr. 5th Floor  Hartford Anesthesia Ass. Inc    East Hartford  CT 06108860-282-0833367500000X1881640696
Bridgeport Anesthesia Associates, P.c.267 Grant St      Bridgeport  CT 06610-2805203-384-3072367500000X1174549257
Brogan, Ms. Linda A APRN,CRNA544 Pilgrims Hbr      Wallingford  CT 06492-5448203-641-5428367500000X1871769554
Brooks-mark, Christin N APRN, CRNA20 York St  Yale New Haven Hospital    New Haven  CT 06510-3220203-785-2802163W00000X1023319340
Brown, Virginia Anne CRNA5 Perryridge Rd      Greenwich  CT 06830-4608203-661-5330163WM0705X1972540995
Brown, Mrs. Carmen Lydia CRNA1423 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4411203-789-3538367500000X1023047628
Browne, Mrs. Dana Elizabeth CRNA100 Grand St      New Britain  CT 06052-2016860-224-5266367500000X1508968587
Bruce, Mr. Justin K CRNA100 Grand St      New Britain  CT 06052-2016860-224-5266367500000X1912946245
Brunelli, Vincent G APRN CRNA111 Founders Plz  300 Co Ipms    East Hartford  CT 06108-3212860-282-4137367500000X1053389346
Brunetti, Mr. Ronald Steven CRNA1423 Chapel St  Hospital Of St Raphael Anesthesia Associates Of New Hav    New Haven  CT 06511203-789-3538367500000X1114933397
Bryant, Nachelle D CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1780799916
Buckley, Carol CRNA80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06106-3315860-972-3117367500000X1154722957
Bullard, Brian CRNA263 Farmington Ave      Farmington  CT 06030-0001860-679-3600367500000X1528011558
Bunting, Mr. Kenneth 435 Lewis Ave      Meriden  CT 06451-2101203-694-8200367500000X1992805535
Butkovsky, Kirsten CRNA/APRN252 Mountain Rd      Wilton  CT 06897-1528203-834-2847367500000X1497851281
Byer, William Cash CRNA20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510-3220203-688-4242367500000X1285921403
Cadan, Rachel 267 Grant St  Bridgeport Hospital    Bridgeport  CT 06610-2805203-384-3174367500000X1932185139
Cahill, Theresa A APRN, CRNA111 Founders Plz  #300 C/o Ipms    East Hartford  CT 06108-3212860-282-4137367500000X1962479402
Cain, Gregory CRNA20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510-3220120-368-8424367500000X1013158716
Calabrese, Calin CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1477003432
Caldrello, Lois CRNA326 Washington St  Dept Of Anesthesia    Norwich  CT 06360-2740860-889-8331367500000X1275885436
Caldwell, Ms. Noma T. R.N., C.R.N.A.20 Spring Garden Rd      Enfield  CT 06082-3018860-745-5667367500000X1235305228
Cambria, Ms. Susan Kathryn CRNA576 Broadview Rd      Orange  CT 06477-2167203-876-0575367500000X1396775276
Campbell, Gail 2800 Main St  St Vincents Medical Center    Bridgeport  CT 06606203-929-7353367500000X1386616282
Campbell, Michelle M CRNA2 Trap Falls Road  Suite 414    Shelton  CT 06484203-929-7353367500000X1346256062
Campbell, Elaine 140 Grandview Ave      Waterbury  CT 06708-2505203-757-7000367500000X1568541738
Cannuli, James F CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1558301291
Cappello, Beverly CRNA114 Woodland St      Hartford  CT 06105-1208860-714-6654367500000X1275580474
Cardone, Elizabeth 1450 Chapel St      New Haven  CT 06511-4405203-789-3000367500000X1487102430
Carlson, Mrs. Liliana Alexandra RN, APRN, MS, CRNA20 York St      New Haven  CT 06510-3220203-688-6963367500000X1548506223
Carney, Ms. Maureen Elizabeth APRN CRNA80 Seymour St  Hartford Hospital    Hartford  CT 06109860-545-2797367500000X1790745255
Carrington, Wendy M. CRNA326 Washington St,      Norwich  CT 06360860-889-8331367500000X1881662138
Cavicchia, Antonio 252 Mountain Rd      Wilton  CT 06897-1528203-834-2847367500000X1336171495
Chacko, Elizabeth M CRNA, APRN80 Seymour St      Hartford  CT 06106-3315860-545-2117367500000X1467734194


NURSE PRACTITIONER JOBS CT - Page 1

1 Nurse Practitioner - Psychiatrist Hartford, CT, USA A mental health facility in Connecticut is seeking a nurse practitioner who is able to provide locum tenens coverage for approximately three months beginning in late July with a high chance of ...... Apply Now>>

2 Nurse Practitioner - Internal Medicine Bridgeport, CT, USA A clinic in Connecticut is looking for an internal medicine nurse practitioner who is able to provide locum tenens coverage for approximately three months starting in early July. On a typical day ...... Apply Now>>

3 Full Time Nurse Practitioner in Connecticut (New Haven and Bristol areas)! Fairfield, USA Exceptional opportunity to come join this fast growing private group specializing in Primary care medicine. Must be a Family Practice NP, Spanish speaking preferred but not required. Our primary ...... Apply Now>>

4 Full-time Nurse Practitioner - Critical Care Opportunity Bridgeport, USA Vincent's Medical Center ~ Bridgeport, CT Saint Vincent's Medical Center is seeking a nurse practitioner (APRN) to join a strong, cohesive and collaborative team of Critical Care Intensivists. The ...... Apply Now>>

5 Nurse Practitioner - CHF Outpatient Job in Fairfield County CT Fairfield County, USA Licensed Advanced Practice Nurse Practitioner credentialed from the Connecticut Department of Public Health obtained prior to hire date or job transfer date. * One or more of the following: Certified ...... Apply Now>>

6 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Middletown, USA ... Nurse Practitioner (PMHNP-BC) may be substituted for a Master's in psychiatric and/or mental health nursing. 3. Individuals who have obtained a Master's or higher degree in nursing on or before ...... Apply Now>>

7 Urgent Care, Nurse Practitioner/ Physician Assistant Cheshire, CT, USA Board Certified Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistant with experience in Emergency Medicine, Urgent Care, Internal Medicine or Family Practice Note: Flexibility is a requirement as Providers will be ...... Apply Now>>

8 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Stamford, USA We are currently seeking a full-time experienced Psychiatric Advanced Practice Registered Nurse (121451) to join our Young Adult Services (YAS) Division, a meaningful role for our agency. We are ...... Apply Now>>

9 Certified Pediatric Nurse Practitioner Hartford, USA The Nurse Practitioner will follow their own panel of patients ranging from a first newborn visit in the hospital to age twenty-one. Newborn nursery responsibilities at neighboring Hartford Hospital ...... Apply Now>>

10 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Hartford, CT, USA The Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner functions as a core member of a collaborative care team that involves the patient's clinician and primary care provider. Eligible individuals may qualify for loan ...... Apply Now>>

11 Neonatal APRN/Nurse Practitioner Manchester, USA We are seeking a full-time neonatology APRN/nurse practitioner to join our talented team of healthcare professionals in our modern NICU/Family Birthing Center in Manchester. The Family Birthing ...... Apply Now>>

12 Endocrinology Nurse Practitioner Storrs, USA Nurse Practitioner (APRN) - Endocrinology - Hartford HealthCare Medical Group is a physician-led practice affiliated with Hartford HealthCare, Connecticut's finest full-spectrum health care system.... Apply Now>>

13 Hospitalist, Nurse Practitioner or Physician Assistant Manchester, CT, USA Established team of 18 physicians, 1 advanced practitioner, and a clinical performance nurse * Hospitalists run codes except those that occur in the ED * Open ICU * Schedule: Swing shift, Monday ...... Apply Now>>

14 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Waterbury, USA Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Opportunities in Waterbury, CT Utilize advanced psychiatric nurse practitioner skills to evaluate and treat adolescent, adult and geriatric psychiatric patients and ...... Apply Now>>

15 Nurse Practitioner - Surgical Critical Care / Neurosurgical Critical Care Hartford, USA The Nurse Practitioner providers are part of a multidisciplinary team that plans and delivers care for complex multiple surgical patient populations including: general surgery, trauma, vascular ...... Apply Now>>

16 Nurse Practitioner/APRN: Psychiatry Manchester, USA COME GROW WITH US Eastern Connecticut Health Network (ECHN) is seeking a full-time outpatient hospital-employed Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner/APRN to join its exceptional behavioral health ...... Apply Now>>

17 Nurse Practitioner - Urgent Care Hartford, USA We're looking for Nurse Practitioners to grow our team. We invite you to connect with us now if you are a Family Medicine or Emergency Medicine Nurse Practitioner with recent Urgent Care or Emergency ...... Apply Now>>

18 Internal Medicine, Nurse Practitioner (APRN) - Department of Medicine New Britain, CT, USA Nurse Practitioner/APRN Role Scope Under established guidelines and under supervision of the practice physician, performs routine physical examinations, and formulates medical, educational, and ...... Apply Now>>

19 Critical Care, Nurse Practitioner (APRN) / Physician Assistant (PA) - Critical Care New Britain, CT, USA Advanced Nurse Practitioner / Physician Assistant Role Scope Under the responsibility of the physician, the Nurse Practitioner is responsible for duties within their area of competence in the direct ...... Apply Now>>

20 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner Bristol, USA Bristol Hospital Multi-Specialty Group has an exceptional full-time opportunity for a nurse practitioner to join an expanding team of psychiatrists, APRN's and other mental health professionals who ...... Apply Now>>

21 Hospitalist, Traveling Nurse Practitioner or Physician Assistant Manchester, CT, USA Thrive Where Your Contributions Are Valued Would you like your employer to move with you while retaining your benefits? As an employed traveling advanced practice provider, you will travel within the ...... Apply Now>>

22 Nurse Practitioner Waterbury, CT, USA Home-Based Primary Care Nurse Practitioner Our client, a revolutionary and community-focused in-home medical care network by mobile providers, is seeking to hire a Home-Based Primary Care Nurse ...... Apply Now>>

23 Psychiatry / Med Mgmt - Nurse Practitioner / Physician Assistant East Hartford, CT, USA A Connecticut-based Psychiatric group is looking for a full-time Nurse Practitioner (APRN) or Physician Assistant (PA) for a position in Geriatric Psychiatric / Behavioral Health Medicine.... Apply Now>>

24 Urgent Care - Nurse Practitioner/ Physician Assistant Wolcott, CT, USA Board Certified Nurse Practitioner/Physician Assistant with experience in Emergency Medicine, Urgent Care, Internal Medicine or Family Practice Note: Flexibility is a requirement as Providers will be ...... Apply Now>>

25 Physician Assistant (PA) / Nurse Practitioner (APRN) - Urgent Care New Haven, CT, USA Full-Time Physician Assistant (PA) or Nurse Practitioner (APRN) wanted for a position with an Urgent Care practice in Greater New Haven, Connecticut area. This very reputable Physician-owned Urgent ...... Apply Now>>

26 Physician Assistant Nurse Practitioner - Primary Care Putnam, CT, USA We are seeking a Physician Assistant or Nurse Practitioner - Primary Care to join our team! You will provide healthcare services, under the supervision of a physician. Responsibilities: * Everything ...... Apply Now>>

27 Nurse Practitioner - Hartford CT Hartford, CT, USA We seek a Nurse Practitioner for immediate placement to provide outpatient adolescent and adult psychiatric services, consultation and education in collaboration with our on site Psychiatrists and ...... Apply Now>>

28 Field Adv Practice Provider (Nurse Practitioner) Norwich/Montville/New London, CT Norwich, CT, USA Nurse Practitioner - PS23196 Norwich/Montville/New London, CT About the Nurse Practitioner Role Our Nurse Practitioners play a vital role at Aspire - and this is an ideal choice for the individual ...... Apply Now>>

29 Nurse Practitioner New Haven, CT, USA NSPMC is seeking an MD/Nurse Practitioners for our rapidly expanding practice located in beautiful downtown Milford CT. Our thriving practice needs to expand and add practitioners to better serve our ...... Apply Now>>

30 Nurse Practitioner APRN Waterbury, CT, USA Nurse Practitioner APRN for Wellness and Weight Loss Clinic in Waterbury, CT. Enjoy a rewarding position within our company promoting/treating overall wellness and weight loss. Truly help change our ...... Apply Now>>

31 Nurse Practitioner-Psychiatry in Connecticut Waterbury, CT, USA International airports an easy 45-minute drive Partner with your VISTA recruiter today to find your perfect Nurse Practitioner psychiatry job... Apply Now>>

32 Internal Med / Physician Assistant / Nurse Practitioner / #JES New Britain, CT, USA Immediate need for an experienced Physician Assistant or Nurse Practitioner to join a well established Internal Medicine group. Lets Discuss Outpatient Some experience as a APP prefered Monday ...... Apply Now>>

33 Nurse Practitioner Internal Medicine West Haven, CT, USA We are seeking a Nurse Practitioner Internal Medicine to become a part of our team! You will focus on providing high quality patient care as part of a healthcare team. Responsibilities: * Diagnose ...... Apply Now>>

34 Nurse Practitioner or Physicians Assistant CT, USA Moderately busy practice in Southwest Connecticut needing additional provider coverage for Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays as well as additional vacation and sick days that arise. Great team to ...... Apply Now>>

35 Nurse Practitioner Middletown, CT, USA We are seeking a Nurse Practitioner to become a part of our Neonatal team! Offering: * Competitive Salary * Full Benefits * Tuition reimbursement * Free parking * Malpractice Coverage ...... Apply Now>>

36 Nurse Practitioner - Full Time State Traveler Bridgeport, CT, USA Nurse Practitioner - Full Time Traveler We are looking for a Nurse Practitioner to work Full Time Traveler assignments throughout the State of Connecticut on our State of the Art Mobile Clinic Units... Apply Now>>

37 Internal Medicine Nurse Practitioner / Physician Assistant Hartford,CT Hartford, CT, USA Great group seeking an Internal Medicine Nurse Practitioner /Physician Assistant in Hartford, CT. Hours typically 8:30am -5:30pm (might be some flexibility for four 10 hours days). Will see approx. ...... Apply Now>>

38 Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner, Adult Outpatient, FQHC Hartford, CT Hartford, USA FQHC is seeking an experienced adult psychiatric nurse practitioner for a full-time opportunity in Hartford, CT. The Adult Psychiatric Nurse Practitioner functions as a member of a multi-disciplinary ...... Apply Now>>

39 Family Nurse practitioner, Outpatient, Employed Hartford, USA The Nurse Practitioner provides quality, comprehensive outpatient primary health care services to patients. Report directly to the Medical Director regarding clinical issues and activities related to ...... Apply Now>>

40 Shelton Connecticut Nurse Practitioner Urgent Care practice Shelton, USA Seeking a full time Physician Assistant Nurse Practitioner for Urgent Care practice in Shelton, Connecticut Flexible days and shifts are available Must be able to treat all age patients Must be able ...... Apply Now>>



corrections    © cis    contact    copyright    privacy
job search by